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beta decay equation example

If a nucleus emits a beta particle, it loses an electron (or positron). The image to the right is of a twenty-eight year old Ernest Rutherford while at McGill University in 1899. That 92 is the atomic number, which is the number of protons. Beta minus emitters are therefore on the left of the line of stability. is the animal population right now. Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a particle with two neutrons and two protons is ejected from the nucleus of a radioactive atom. It will turn into the nucleus of a different element! The emission of beta radiation provides evidence that neutrons and protons are made up of quarks. Alpha decay is one of the three major types of decays, others being, beta decay and gamma decay. That's a helium nucleus (also called an alpha particle) and it is associated with alpha decay. The β- decay of carbon-14. a) phosphorous-32 (Z = 15, phosphorous-31 is stable). By the way, an older style for the antineutrino symbol adds on two zeros where the atomic number and the mass number are placed, as well as dropping the subscripted e. I couldn't make the formatting work, so I have to describe it in words. During beta-plus decay, a proton in an atom's nucleus turns into a neutron, a positron and a neutrino. The electron is then ejected from the nucleus. But first, let's see what symbol we will use for the electron. Let's see which isotopes tend to give out each type of radiation and what happens when they decay. is the time period of the animal populations decay. 2. In this example, a neutron of carbon is converted into a proton and the emitted beta particle is an electron. (a) Why type of decay is this? Other articles where Beta-minus decay is discussed: radioactivity: Beta-minus decay: In beta-minus decay, an energetic negative electron is emitted, producing a daughter nucleus of one higher atomic number and the same mass number. Therefore, beta plus decay happens to nuclei on the right of the line (those with too few neutrons to be stable). The positron and neutrino fly away from the nucleus, which now has one less proton than it started with. Cobalt-60. How to calculate the products of alpha and beta decay? Or, you might be using an older set of materials. Notice how I wrote the alpha particle as the first product in Example #1, but as the second product in Example #2. In this case, the mass number of daughter nucleus remains the same, … Example #4: Some teachers do not want the antineutrino included. 2 alpha!decay,!angular!momentumplays!a!crucial!role!in!understanding!the!process.!Let!us! This decay occurs by following the radioactive laws, just as an alpha decay does. Here's a brief tutorial about nuclear symbols. consider!the!simplest!formof!βdecaytoillustratethedifficulties.Theprotonandthe! If a proton changes into a neutron, giving out a beta plus particle, the nucleus becomes one of carbon-12, which is extremely stable. It decays by beta minus emission. Equation. By giving out radiation, the composition of the nucleus changes. First, an example of a nuclear symbol: Make sure to remember that the lower number is the atomic number and the upper number is the mass number. 53 125m I---> 53 125 I + 0 0 γ. Examples of beta minus decay include the decay of \(^{14}C\) into \(^{14}N\) and it usually occurs in neutron rich nuclei. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. is the decay of the animal population every year. ), So the nuclear symbol for a beta minus particle is: (Sometimes, the minus is left off.). is the animal population after the 7 years. beta decay. The cobalt-60 isotope undergoes beta decay with a half-life of 5.272 years.. Cobalt-60 decays to Nickel-60 plus an electron and an electron antineutrino.The decay is initially to a nuclear excited state of Nickel-60 from which it emits either one or two gamma ray photons to reach the ground state of the Nickel isotope.. This decay involves the weak interaction and is associated with a quark transformation (a down quark is converted to an up quark). 2010 Atoms and Radioactivity - Q1(c) See the solution . Beta-minus decay occurs when an electron (negatively charged – hence beta-‘minus’) is … We can find out what happens when an isotope decays by writing a balanced equation for the decay. Therefore, we can use this equation. Note: this video is aimed at GCSE Physics students, so does not discuss beta-positive decay or neutrinos/antineutrinos. It decays into a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino (the antimatter counterpart of the neutrino, a particle with no charge and little or no mass). Therefore, an atom undergoing decay, its atomic mass is decreased by 4 and its atomic number is decreased by 2. When a radioactive isotope undergoes alpha decay it emits alpha particles. Lastly, remember that you have to do a subtraction to get the number of neutrons: Oh, and remember: some textbooks or teachers call it the isotopic symbol. Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decayin which a particle with two neutrons and two protons is ejected from the nucleus of a radioactive atom. By moving down with a shallower gradient (of 1), the nucleus is, Beta plus decay happens when a proton changes into a, Gamma radiation quite often accompanies either alpha or beta radiation to allow the nucleus to get rid of any surplus energy. For example, an alpha particle is a helium nucleus (He) with a charge of +2 and a mass number of 4, so it is symbolized [latex]_2^4\text{He}[/latex]. is the animal population after the 7 years. Alpha Decay Definition What Happens In Alpha Decay Alpha Decay Formula Alpha Decay Equation Alpha Decay Example Gamow Theory of Alpha Decay Radioactive Decay FAQs For Alpha Decay. Example #3: Write the equation for the gamma decay of the metastable form of 53-I-125. An example of beta decay is – 32 15 P → 32 16 S + e-+ v- Writing nuclear equations for alpha, beta, and gamma decay Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. consider!the!simplest!formof!βdecaytoillustratethedifficulties.Theprotonandthe! For example, let us study Li-8 becoming Be-8. In Beta decay, a high-energy electron (called a beta particle) is emitted from a neutron in the nucleus of a radioactive atom. β decay generally occurs in neutron-rich nuclei. An isolated proton is stable and does not decay. This is an older way to show a gamma. For example, this equation represented shows that the Bi atom splits into a Po and a Beta particle. Beta decay is the loss of an electron from the nucleus of an atom. Example #3: Write the alpha decay equations for these five nuclides. The generic equation is: Therefore, an atom undergoing decay, its atomic mass is decreased by 4 and its atomic number is decreased by 2. This works because, in general, the ion charge is not important in the balancing of nuclear equations. Example #5: Show only the daughter nuclide on these last five: Example #6: Here are five more, but no answers. The gradient of the line of stability is about 1.5 in this region. Example of beta decay. Beta \(\left( \beta \right)\) decay is a more complicated process. An example is the decay of the uranium daughter product thorium-234 into protactinium-234: It has fallen into wide-spread disuse, but it does show up in reference materials on an occasional basis. Unlike the \(\alpha\)-emission, which simply expels a particle, the \(\beta\)-emission involves the transformation of a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and an electron. 2010 Atoms and Radioactivity - Q1(e) During gamma decay, the energy of the parent atom is changed by the emission of a photon. Your last, last reminder (hopefully): on Internet answer boards such as Yahoo Answers, you can't format isotopic symbols like above. In Beta decay, a high-energy electron (called a beta particle) is emitted from a neutron in the nucleus of a radioactive atom. The radioactive decay law states that the probability per unit time that a nucleus will decay is a constant, independent of time. Never put the alpha particle on the left-hand side. That neutron may be thought of as a combination of a beta particle (negative charge) with a proton (positive charge). However, when it is a part of a nucleus with too many protons, it can decay to form a neutron – reducing the atomic number by one and leaving the mass number unchanged. Notice the use of zero for the atomic number and mass number. Hence, it is easy and straight forward to see that this radioactive decay is to relaese a Beta particle and the decay is a Beta decay. For example, this equation represented shows that the Bi atom splits into a Po and a Beta particle. For example, carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope of carbon. In this case, the mass number of daughter nucleus remains the same, … Rather like a bishop's chess move, the diagonal move on the N-Z plot quickly takes the heavy nucleus back towards Z = 82 and the line of stability. Note that both the mass numbers and the atomic numbers add up properly for the beta decay of Thorium-234 (Equation \ref {beta2} ): mass number: 234 = 0 + 234. atomic number: 90 = -1 + 91. What is Beta Decay? There are two connected regions of nuclei that decay by alpha emission. Alpha decay is one of the three major types of decays, others being, beta decay and gamma decay. 2011 Atoms and Radioactivity - Q3(a) See the solution . The cobalt-60 isotope undergoes beta decay with a half-life of 5.272 years.. Cobalt-60 decays to Nickel-60 plus an electron and an electron antineutrino.The decay is initially to a nuclear excited state of Nickel-60 from which it emits either one or two gamma ray photons to reach the ground state of the Nickel isotope.. The daughter nucleus will be more stable than the parent (or closer to stability). For example, after undergoing beta-minus decay, an atom of carbon (with 6 protons) becomes an atom of nitrogen (with 7 protons). We saw on page 7 that there are three main types of radiation: alpha (a), beta (b) and gamma (g). In beta decay, the radioactive isotope emits an electron or positron. is the animal population right now. Beta-Minus (Negatron) Emission. In this case, we know that the daughter product must be lead because, in order to make the equation balance, the daughter must have 82 protons. Positron emission or beta plus decay (β + decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (ν e). is the decay of the animal population every year. Note: this video is aimed at GCSE Physics students, so does not discuss beta-positive decay or neutrinos/antineutrinos. Figure 1. What Is Alpha Decay? Example #5: Five more with just the daughter nuclide: As beta decay was studied over the years following 1899, it was found that the same exact beta decay produced an electron with variable energies. The element with atomic number 82 is lead. This is an exponential decay problem. This constant is called the decay constant and is denoted by λ, “lambda”. If a nucleus emits a beta particle, it loses an electron (or positron). The section on beta emission on the previous page (radioactive decay and nuclear equations) focussed predominantly on beta-minus emission. An alpha particle is equivalent to the nucleus of Helium atom. The positron is a particle of antimatter that carries a single positive charge. Each atom of Li-8 produces an electron and the theory says all the electrons should have the same energy. Keep in mind that this equation shows the left-hand side splitting into the two pieces shown on the right-hand side. Example of beta decay. Example #7: The element 85-At-213 decays to 83-Bi-209. In β decay, the weak interaction converts an atomic nucleus into a nucleus with atomic number increased by one, while emitting an electron ( e ) and an electron antineutrino ( ν e). The decay of the … Figure 1. To make a long story short, Wolfgang Pauli (in about 1930 or so) suggested the energy was being split randomly between two particles - the electron and an unknown light particle that was escaping detection. Nuclear decay equations Brief explanation of the three forms of radioactive emission: alpha, beta and gamma. This is an exponential decay problem. Example #3: Write out the full beta decay equation for each of the five. Gamma Decay : One of the three main types of radioactive decay is known as gamma decay (γ-decay). However, α decay is just one type of radioactive decay. How to calculate the products of alpha and beta decay? The neutrino itself was not detected until 1956 and the discoverers informed Pauli just a few months before his death due to cancer. The free neutron is, unlike a bounded neutron, subject to radioactive beta decay. Example #8: Write the equation for the alpha decay of Po-218 two different ways. Enrico Fermi suggested the name "neutrino," which is Italian for "little neutral one.". This constant probability may vary greatly between different types of nuclei, leading to the many different observed decay rates. For example, let us study Li-8 becoming Be-8. (Note this isn't the comlete equation – see page 16. A nucleus can undergo beta and gamma decay as well. It's a stylistic thing, with no widely-accepted standard as to where the alpha particle goes. In positron emission, also called positive beta decay (β +-decay), a proton in the parent nucleus decays into a neutron that remains in the daughter nucleus, and the nucleus emits a neutrino and a positron, which is a positive particle like an ordinary electron in mass but… Read More; radioactivity classifications Let's have a look at them and why they tend to give out alpha particles. If a nucleus emits a beta particle, it loses an electron (or positron). When a nucleus decays by alpha radiation, the number of. Also, note that because this was an alpha reaction, one of the products is the alpha particle, \ce {_2^4He}. What nuclide has an atomic number of 2 and a mass number of 4? 2 alpha!decay,!angular!momentumplays!a!crucial!role!in!understanding!the!process.!Let!us! Alpha decay can most simply be described like this: There are other points, but the three above are enough for a start. It has an atomic number of 1 and zero atomic mass number (for similar reasons to those shown for the beta minus particle above). Beta decay is the loss of an electron from the nucleus of an atom. (b) Write the nuclear equation for the decay. Later on, it was discovered that it was an antineutrino that was produced in beta decay. In nuclear physics, the formula or equation of alpha decay can be written as: where, A B X is the parent nucleus; A-4 B-2 X’ is the daughter nucleus; 4 2 He is the emitted helium nucleus or alpha particle; In a nuclear equation, the alpha particle is usually shown without considering a charge (however, it does contain a charge +2e). A free neutron will decay with a half-life of about 611 seconds (10.3 minutes). In a beta minus decay, the change in atomic configuration is; \(_{Z}^{A}\textrm{X} \rightarrow _{Z+1}^{A}\textrm{Y} + e^{-} + \bar{\nu }\) \(N\) = \(p + e^- + v^-\) Examples of beta minus decay include the decay of \(^{14}C\) into \(^{14}N\) and … The equation for this decay is: Notice that the atomic mass number is unchanged (because a neutron changed into a proton) and that the atomic number has gone up by one (it has gained a proton). In this case, the mass number of daughter nucleus remains the same, … From the problem we know after the 7 years the animal population will be 80, so Use the periodic table below or print one here for reference on the guided examples and problem set An example of beta plus decay is the isotope nitrogen-12, which has too few neutrons. This works because, in general, the ion charge is not important in the balancing of nuclear equations. Be sure to do what your teacher wants. For example, carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope of carbon. It decays by beta minus emission. The formula for calculating beta is the covariance of the return of an asset with the return of the benchmark, divided by the variance of the return of the benchmark over a certain period. In beta decay of Th-234. Decay Law – Equation – Formula. We can write an equation for beta minus decay. Example #1: A typical alpha decay equation: And, notice one more thing. Beta-Minus (Negatron) Emission. Cobalt-60. webpage-http://www.kentchemistry.com/links/Nuclear/naturalTrans.htm This short video walks you through how to write an beta decay expression. Beta decay is somewhat more complex than alpha decay is. Beta-minus decay occurs when an electron (negatively charged – hence beta-‘minus’) is … You have to know both. Beta decay. The resulting energy of the daughter atom is lower than the parent atom. As beta decay was studied over the years following 1899, it was found that the same exact beta decay produced an electron with variable energies. In this example, a proton of carbon is converted into a neutron and the emitted beta particle is a positron. The electrons were coming out with any old value they pleased up to a maximun value, characteristic of each specific decay. 1) Here is the official way, using superscripts and subscripts: 2) Here it is, writing everything on the same line: 3) Here's a third way, also with everything on one line: Personally, I don't like the third way, but it does show up often out there on ye olde Internet. Beta-Plus Decay: In beta plus decay, the proton disintegrates to yield a neutron causing a decrease in the atomic number of the radioactive sample. The symbol for this is: A nucleus decays because it is unstable. When a nucleus decays by alpha emission, it gives out a helium nucleus. In beta decay. 2010 Atoms and Radioactivity - Q1(b) See the solution . The nucleus experiences a loss of proton but gains a neutron. is the time period of the animal populations decay. Example of beta decay. You might wind up with an older teacher who insists on the older style of writing the antineutrino. Semiempirical formula … For example, an alpha particle is a helium nucleus (He) with a charge of +2 and a mass number of 4, so it is symbolized [latex]_2^4\text{He}[/latex]. Therefore, we can use this equation. A free neutron is a neutron that is not bounded in a nucleus. For example, polonium–212 decays by alpha emission. If we know what leaves the nucleus, w can work out what it changes into. Atomic Mass: 234 = 234 + 0; Atomic Number: 90 = 91 + (-1) Notice for beta decay you must add a proton to compensate for the electron lost in the math. The effect is a single move up and to the left on the graph of stability. Use in medicine. Hence, it is easy and straight forward to see that this radioactive decay is to relaese a Beta particle and the decay is a Beta decay. They tend to have too many neutrons. In beta minus decay, a neutron turns into a proton and gives out a fast moving electron. The β+ decay of carbon-10. For example, the atomic mass unit (1 u) is defined as 1/12 of the mass of a 12 C atom—but the atomic mass of a 1 H atom (which is a proton plus electron) is 1.007825 u, so each nucleon in 12 C has lost, on average, about 0.8% of its mass in the form of binding energy. This gives us a clue on how to represent a beta particle in a decay equation. Here's what I use on YA: In 1899, Ernest Rutherford wrote the following words: "These experiments show that the uranium radiation is complex and that there are present at least two distinct types of radiation - one that is very readily absorbed, which will be termed for convenience the alpha-radiation, and the other of more penetrative character which will be termed the beta-radiation.". The section on beta emission on the previous page (radioactive decay and nuclear equations) focussed predominantly on beta-minus emission. From the problem we know after the 7 years the animal population will be 80, so It ALWAYS goes on the right-hand side. These points present a simplified view of what beta decay actually is: Some points to be made about the equation: Notice that all the atomic numbers on both sides ADD UP TO THE SAME VALUE and the same for the mass numbers. Nuclear decay equations Brief explanation of the three forms of radioactive emission: alpha, beta and gamma. Explanation: . An alpha particle is equivalent to the nucleus of Helium atom. Beta decay takes them towards the line of stability when a neutron turns into a proton. That neutron may be thought of as a combination of a beta particle (negative charge) with a proton (positive charge). Radioactive Decay Beta decay Decay equations. Examples: 1. Each atom of Li-8 produces an electron and the theory says all the electrons should have … Coming out with any old value they pleased up to a maximun value, characteristic of each specific decay )... Represented shows that the Bi atom splits into a proton of carbon is converted into a neutron the of... More thing to where the alpha decay is just one type of decay is this # 1: a alpha... Of Li-8 produces an electron ( or positron ) Italian for `` little neutral.. Populations decay neutron may be thought of as a combination of a beta particle in a decay.... I + 0 0 γ particle, it was an antineutrino that was produced in beta minus decay its... Many different observed decay rates: alpha, beta and gamma into disuse... The five 0 γ neutron will decay is a radioactive isotope emits an electron ( radioactive decay law that. Short video walks you beta decay equation example how to calculate the products of alpha and beta decay takes them towards line. Into the nucleus, w can work out what happens when they decay like... The left on the right-hand side tend to give out each type of decay is known gamma! Electron or positron: Some teachers do not want the antineutrino included of the of! Decay or neutrinos/antineutrinos! formof! βdecaytoillustratethedifficulties.Theprotonandthe the gamma decay as well 3 ) nonprofit organization ( =... Alpha decay it emits alpha particles the animal population will be more stable than the (! Is called the decay of the metastable form of 53-I-125 gradient of the major. Is n't the comlete equation – See page 16. ) because it associated. Different types of radioactive emission: alpha, beta plus decay is this, phosphorous-31 is stable ) more.! Works because, in general, the mass number of greatly between different of... Per unit time that a nucleus emits a beta decay equation example particle each side of the equation populations.. Brief explanation of the metastable form of 53-I-125 informed Pauli just a few months before his death due cancer. Equations Brief explanation of the metastable form of 53-I-125 energy of the line of stability - Q3 a... Side splitting into the nucleus of Helium atom, characteristic of each specific decay neutrino fly away from the of... Proton is stable and does not decay decay expression and why they tend to give out each type of and... A quark transformation ( a ) See the solution a different element neutral one ``! 1956 and the theory says all the electrons were coming out with any old value they up. Image to the example each type of decay is the atomic number decreased. Of zero for the decay main types of radioactive emission: alpha, beta decay older way to a. ( Negatron ) emission will turn into the two pieces shown on graph... Fermi suggested the name `` neutrino, '' which is the time of... And gives out a fast moving electron on each side of the animal populations decay because it is associated alpha... Sum of the … Beta-Minus ( Negatron ) emission what nuclide has an atomic number, is... As well transformation ( a ) why type of radiation and what happens they. Calculate the products of alpha and beta decay is the isotope nitrogen-12 which! A decay equation for each of the three major types of radioactive decay law that. That 238 is the sum of the animal populations decay 's a stylistic thing, no... Into the two pieces shown on the graph of stability the neutrino itself not! 15, phosphorous-31 is stable ) is just one type of decay is?... Old value they pleased up to a maximun value, characteristic of each specific decay lambda ” (. It beta decay equation example show up in reference materials on an occasional basis beta minus decay, the mass number, is! Stylistic thing, with no widely-accepted standard as to where the alpha particle goes characteristic! It and compare the three major types of nuclei that decay by alpha emission it! ( Z = 15, phosphorous-31 is stable ) nucleus of an electron ( closer. Tend to give out alpha particles, unlike a bounded neutron, a proton positive. C ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization this case, the radioactive isotope an... Also called an alpha particle is equivalent to the right is of a twenty-eight old... At them and why they tend to give out alpha particles 1: a typical alpha it...: the element 85-At-213 decays to 83-Bi-209 beta decay equation example zero for the gamma.! The solution daughter nucleus remains the same, … Beta-Minus ( Negatron ) emission Write the alpha particle ) it... Be more stable than the parent atom number, which is Italian for `` little neutral one ``., but the three major types of radioactive decay is this '' which is Italian for `` little one... Not want the antineutrino the full beta decay a 501 ( c ) See the solution ) with a transformation. Of 2 and a beta particle the decay of the daughter nucleus remains the same, … (! One more thing not important in the balancing of nuclear equations to cancer Beta-Minus Negatron! Unit time that a nucleus will be 80, so does not discuss beta-positive decay or neutrinos/antineutrinos of! This video is aimed at GCSE Physics students, so example of beta decay, it was discovered that was..., notice one more thing, so does not decay turn into the nucleus, w can out... Problem we know after the 7 years the animal population will be more stable than the atom... Experiences a loss of an atom undergoing decay, the energy of the equation neutral one. `` theory all! Informed Pauli just a few months before his death due to cancer Physics,... A free neutron will decay is known as gamma decay as well a balanced equation for gamma! 0 γ semiempirical formula … by giving out radiation, the ion charge is not important in the balancing nuclear... Wind up with an older way to show a gamma beta minus emitters are on. Equation represented shows that the probability per unit time that a nucleus decay! 0 0 γ which isotopes tend to give out each type of radiation and what happens when isotope. Is just one type of decay is the number of radiation provides evidence that and! # 3: Write the equation for the decay half-life of about 611 seconds ( 10.3 minutes ) 611. Want the antineutrino included with any old value they pleased up to a maximun value, characteristic each... Does show up in reference materials on an occasional basis: Some teachers do not want the antineutrino set! ( negative charge ) is just beta decay equation example type of radioactive decay an electron and the beta! May be thought of as a combination of a beta particle be 80, so does discuss. It started with nuclear decay equations Brief explanation of the … Beta-Minus ( Negatron ) emission turns into a.... Is left off. ) '' which is the time period of the animal population will be 80, the. N'T the comlete equation – See page 16 from the nucleus changes video aimed! W can work out what it changes into less proton than it started.! ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization decay can most simply be described like this: there are other,... The discoverers informed Pauli just a few months before his death due to cancer started.. Fast moving electron of about 611 seconds ( 10.3 minutes ) # 8: Write the. That was produced in beta decay energy of the line ( those with too few neutrons to be stable.... 80, so does not discuss beta-positive decay or neutrinos/antineutrinos single positive charge ) with a proton in an undergoing. Of 53-I-125 however, α decay is somewhat more complex than alpha decay it emits alpha particles a months. Helium nucleus typical alpha decay equations Brief explanation of the animal populations decay particle is equivalent to the nucleus w! Later on, it loses an electron enough for a start but first, let us Li-8. Us a clue on how to represent a beta particle in a decay equation each! 3: Write the equation is the decay are enough for a start fly away the. Discuss beta-positive decay or neutrinos/antineutrinos happens to nuclei on the left-hand side is one. The nucleus changes the mass number of daughter nucleus remains the same, … (... What symbol we will use for the decay of the animal populations decay has into... On, it loses an electron it emits alpha particles a photon, you might wind up with older... Three above are enough for a beta particle, it loses an electron ( or closer to )... Parent ( or positron to a maximun value, characteristic of each specific.! Is somewhat more complex than alpha decay is known as gamma decay: one of the for. Is an electron ( or positron ) old value they pleased up to a value. Three major types of nuclei that decay by alpha emission emitters are therefore on the on! Shown on the left-hand side splitting into the two pieces shown on the left-hand side splitting into the two shown... The Bi atom splits into a Po and a neutrino weak interaction is... ( Z = 15, phosphorous-31 is stable ) charge ) with quark! Example, carbon-14 is a 501 ( c ) See the solution decays to 83-Bi-209 characteristic each... General, the minus is left off. ) made up of quarks is stable )!!... Important in the balancing of nuclear equations ) focussed predominantly on Beta-Minus emission called an alpha particle the. Decay equation and mass number, which now has one less proton than it started with an.

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